Once any trauma occurs to the brain, the overall function can be disrupted. The types of mental disruption tend to vary ranging from issues with the memory and attention, affecting the capability of the individual to perform daily tasks and decision making. The signs and symptoms of brain trauma usually depend on the area of the brain that is damaged during the trauma, either the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, temporal lobe or the occipital lobe.
Injuries to the parietal lobe which is situated behind the frontal lobe can disrupt the ability to write and read. It includes inability to name an object (anomia), difficulty reading (alexia) and inability to recall words for writing (agraphia). Additionally, trauma to the parietal lobe can lead to hand and eye coordination problems, issues in differentiating left from right and problems with visual attention focus.
The frontal lobe is part of the brain towards the forehead and it is highly prone to traumatic injury. The symptoms of injury to the frontal lobe include movement issues such as paralysis and sequencing in which the individual cannot finish a task involving multiple movements. The mood, personality and social behavior are also affected and the individual can experience less spontaneity during social interactions. Additionally, problem solving and attention can be affected and there are also issues when speaking.
This is the most posterior lobe in the brain which is the center for visual processing. Once trauma affects this part of the brain, the individual will have issues with the visual field, locating items, recognizing drawn objects and words as well as recognizing the movement of an item. Symptoms also involve hallucinations and seeing things inaccurately.
The temporal lobe is positioned along the side of the head just above the ears. Take note that the temporal lobe is important in memory. Once this is injured, the symptoms include short-term memory loss, selective attention disruption and long-term memory interference. Lesions on the temporal lobe can affect behavior, increasing aggressive behavior as well as increasing or decreasing sexual behavior. Other indications that there is trauma to the temporal lobe include difficulty recognizing faces, difficulty identifying and verbalizing items as well as difficulty understanding spoken words.
If the brain stem is damaged, it can result to life-threatening symptoms such as diminished capacity in breathing, thus disrupting speech. This would require immediate emergency assistance. Other signs include problems when swallowing food and water as well as with the balance, perception and movement. Sleep problems such as sleep apnea and insomnia can also indicate trauma to the brain stem.
The cerebellum is located at the base of the skull which is responsible for movement. Symptoms of injury to the cerebellum include inability to walk, difficulty coordinating complex or fast movements as well as reaching out and grabbing objects. Other signs include slurred speech, tremors, vertigo and dizziness.